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No article of any metal whatever has been found; yet as only one burial deposit has been opened, it is by no means certain that gold or copper ornaments were not employed. This form, then, per- tained to the most exalted personages.' Foster's Pre-Hist. It is hard to resist the behef that these tablets hold locked up in their mystic characters the history of the ruined city and its people, or the hope that the key to their significance may yet be brought to light; still, in the absence of a contempo- rary written language, the hope must be allowed to rest on a very unsubstantial basis. Like those of Pa- enque, and some characters of the Dresden MS. They fought long and desperately in defence of their homes and liberty, and when forced to yield before Spanish discipline and arms, the few survivors of the struggle either retired to the inaccessible fast- nesses of the northern highlands, or remained in sullen forced submission to their conquerors in the homes of their past greatness — the aboriginal spirit still un- broken, and the native superstitious faith yielding only nominally to Catholic power and persuasion. No aboriginal name is known for the locality, Quirigua being merely that of a small village at the foot of Mount Mico, not far distant. Ill the sides to the super-.imposed structure are only eight pr nine inches high and six or seven inches in width, remaining intact only at a few points. Palacio's miscellaneous relics are, a large stone in the form of an eagle with a tablet of hieroglyphics a vara long on its breast; a stone cross three palms high, with a broken arm; and a supposed baptismal font in the plaza. The top of the gallery leading through the river- wall would indicate a method of construction by means of over-lapping blocks, which we shall find employed ex- clusively in Yucatan and Chiapas. These artists would not select the most oly of places as the groundwork of their caricatures. When the disciples of Brasseur de Bourbourg shall succeed in realizing his expectations respecting the latter document, by means of the Landa alphabet, we may expect the mystery to be partially lifted from Copan. At the time of its conquest by the Spaniards, Guatemala was the seat of several powerful aboriginal kingdoms, chief among which were those of the Quiches and Gakchi- quels. An account made up from Catherwood's notes was, however, inserted in the Guatemalan newspaper El Tiempo hy the proprietors of the Quirigua estate, and translated into French in Ze Moniteur Parisien, from which it was reprinted iw Nouvelles Annales des Voy., 1840, tom. The site is only very slightly elevated above the level of the river, and is consequently often flooded in times of high water; indeed, during a more than ordinary freshet in 1852, after Mr Catherwood's visit, several idols were under- mined and overthrown.The construction of the whole will be under- stood by a glance at the cut, which represents a section Section of the Casa del Gobemador. Norman says 24 rooms, Char- nay 21, and Stephens indicates 22 in the plan in Cent. The top of each doorway is formed by a stout beam of zapote-wood which has to bear the weight of the stone -work above.One of these lin- tels in the southern apartment, ten feet long, twenty- one inches wide, and ten inches thick, is elaborately carved; the rest, not only in this building, but in all at Uxmal, are plain. It is to the breaking of these wooden lintels that is to be attributed nearly all the dilapidation ob- servable about this ruin, especially over the outer doorways.Beginning with the province of Chiquimula, border- ing on Honduras and composed for the most part of the valley of the Motagua and its tributaries, the first ruin of importance, one of the exceptions noted above to the general character of Guatemalan antiqui- ties, is found at Quirigua, fifty miles north-east of Copan, on the north side of the Motagua, about sixty miles above its mouth, and ten miles below Encuen- tros where the royal road, so called, from Yzabal to Guatemala crosses the river. -4-, /t^f^F-, 4^c^ir' 100 200 300 *oo soo «oo ^"^^ ^ 3? ^° To prove that any of them face the cardinal points will require more careful ex- amination than has yet been made. Norman, Bamhles in Yuc, frontispiece, gives a general view of the ruins by moonlight from a point and in a direction impossible to fix, which is copied in the Album Mex., tom. Most of them, however, refer only to the eastern front, and no one but Stephens notes the western irregularities.The stream is navigable for small boats to a point opposite the ruins, which are in a cedar- forest on low moist ground nearly a mile from the bank.^ Our only knowledge respecting this 1 About five miles down the river from El Pozo de los Amates on the KUINS OF QUIRIGUA. * Liegen in der Nahe des kleinen Dorfes Los Amates, 2 Stunden unterhalb Encuentros, am linken Ufer des Mota^a, | Stunde vom Flusse entfemt, mitten im Walde. 'Eine der unbekanntesten und merkwiirdigsten Ruinenstatten Central-Amerika's, nahe dem See von Isabal, in einer schwer zuganglichen Wildniss.' Wagner and Scherzer, Costa Rica, p. 'Quirigiia, c'est le nom d'une ville con- siderable, batie par les Azteques h, I'epoqiie ou florissait la magnifique Ana- huac. ,^ ^ «»L: SCALE roads through the undergrowth for this express purpose, and the accuracy of whose survey cannot be called in question. In the southern central portion of the space com- prised in the plan is the edifice at A, known as the Casa del Gobernador, or Governor's House. In giving the dimensions of the respective terraces some also refer to their bases, and others probably to their summits. 156-7, states that the second and third terraces are each thirty feet high, while Charnay, Buines Amer., pp.There are no traces of stairways by which access was had to the second platform,^^ but a long inclined plane with- out steps, one hundred feet wide, on the southern side, apparently furnished the only means of ascent. He probably does not count the four small rooms corresponding with the recesses on the front and rear, as he also does not include their doors in his count. 157 sixty feet long and twelve feet wide; the others, ex- cept the two in the recesses, are twelve by twenty-five feet.From the second platform, however, a regular stairway of thirty-five steps, one hundred and thirty feet wide, leads up to the summit at ^, being in the centre of the eastern side, or front. Those of the front corridor are twenty-three feet high, while in the rear they are only twenty-two, authorities differing somewhat, however, on this point.
The former, traveling with Mr Stephens, visited the locahty in 1840 in company with the Se- nores Payes, proprietors of the estate on which the ruins stand, and by his description Quirigua first was made known to the world. * Quirigua, village gua- temalien, situe sur la route et h huit lieues environ du port de I'lsabal; les mines qui en portent le nom existent h deux lieues de la sur la rive gauche du fleuve Motagua.' Brasseur de Bourbourg, Palenque, introd., p. There is only a very slight prob- ability that in a few cases they may have hit upon a correct designation, although many of the names, like that of this building, are certainly sufficiently appro- priate." The terraced mound that supports the Gov- Nat. Waldeck's plan makes the summit platform about 240 feet long. forms were also paved originally with square blocks, as M.Some special motive must have influenced the builders to use wood in preference to the more durable stone, and this motive may be supposed to have been the rarity and value of the zapote, which is said not to grow in this part of the state.The only traces preserved of the means by which these doorways were originally closed are the remains, on the inside of some of them near the top, of rings, or 16 Friederichsthal, in Nouvelles Annales des Voy., 1841, torn, xcii,, p. 34, pronounces them from 25 to 28 centimetres in length, width, and thickness. Y., where it shared the fate of Stephens* other relics. 159 hooks, which may have served as hinges, or more probably for the support of a bar from which to sus- pend curtains. If this be a fact, it must have been ascertained from the sepulchral vault in the temple court, concerning the construction of which both he and Stephens are silent. Mais la conception de ces monuments, I'origi- nalite de leur ornementation suffit k plus d'un esprit pour eloigner toute idee d'origine commune.' Dally, Races Indig., p. 31 * We have this type of skull delineated by artists who had the skill to Eortray the features of their race. if not identical with, some of those found at Palenque, in Yucatan, in the Dresden Codex, and in the Manu- script Troano. 'No he hallado libros de sus antigiiedades, nicreoque en todo este distrito hay mds que uno, que yotengo,' Palacio, in Pachcco, Col. Then comes a highland tract which contains the chief towns and most of the white population of the modern republic; succeeded by the yet wilder and more mountainous regions of Totonica- pan and Vera Paz, chiefly inhabited by comparatively savage and unsubdued aboriginal tribes; from which we descend, still going northward towards Yucatan, into the little- explored lake region of Peten. ploration has been made even in comparison with those of Copan and other Central American ruins; but monuments and fragments thus far brought to Hght are found scattered over a space of some three thou- sand square feet, on the banks of a small creek which empties into the Motagua. There would seem to be much reason for the belief that here grand temples of wood once covered these mighty mounds, which, decaying, have left no trace of their former grandeur. Galindo states that the method of forming a roof here was by means of large inclined stones. *La sculpture monumentale des ruines de Copan peut rivaliser avec quelques produits similaires de I'Orient et de r Occident europeens. The Pacific coast of Guatemala for an average width of seventy- miles is low and unhealthy, with few inhabitants in modern, as, judging from the absence of material relics, in ancient times. The same description is also given in Valois, Mexique, pp. Scherzer's pamphlet on the subject bears the title Ein Besuch bei den Ruinen von Quirigud im Staate Guatemala in Central-Amerika, (Wien, 110 ANTIQUITIES OF GUATEMALA.