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The nation's cultural diversity has been increased by migration within the British Isles and by immigration from Europe and overseas.Until 1920, Ireland was incorporated within the United Kingdom.From 1841 onward, the censuses of Scotland, England, and Wales have enumerated Irish-born people in every part of the country.Similarly, Scottish and Welsh people have settled in England.
Northern Ireland and Scotland have separate legal and educational systems and issue their own currency; Wales is fully incorporated within the English legal, educational, and banking systems.
The British and Irish parliaments were united in 1801.
A separatist movement led to the dissolution of the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1920; twenty-six of Ireland's thirty-two counties became the independent Irish Free State (later the Republic of Ireland), with six of the nine counties of Ulster remaining within the United Kingdom.
Although the country lies mostly at the latitude of Labrador in the western Atlantic, the climate is tempered by the Gulf Stream and does not have extremes of summer heat or winter cold.
Except for some areas of barren upland and bog, most of the land is suitable for agriculture and has been grazed or cultivated since the Bronze Age.